Derivation of numerical values for the World Health Organization guidelines for recreational waters

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dc.contributor.author Pruss, A.
dc.contributor.author Ashbolt, N.
dc.contributor.author Bartram, J.
dc.contributor.author Kay, David
dc.date.accessioned 2008-12-15T16:17:00Z
dc.date.available 2008-12-15T16:17:00Z
dc.date.issued 2004-03
dc.identifier.citation Pruss , A , Ashbolt , N , Bartram , J & Kay , D 2004 , ' Derivation of numerical values for the World Health Organization guidelines for recreational waters ' Water Research , vol 38 , no. 5 , pp. 1296-1304 . en
dc.identifier.issn 0043-1354
dc.identifier.other PURE: 95992
dc.identifier.other dspace: 2160/1657
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2160/1657
dc.description Kay, David, Bartram, J., Pruss, A., Ashbolt, N., 'Derivation of numerical values for the World Health Organization guidelines for recreational waters', Water Research 38(5) pp.1296-1304 RAE2008 en
dc.description.abstract In April 2001, draft ‘Guidelines’ for safe recreational water environments were developed at a World Health Organization (WHO) expert consultation. Later the same month, these were presented and discussed at the ‘Green Week’ in Brussels alongside the on-going revision of the European Union Bathing Water Directive 76/160/EEC. The WHO Guidelines cover general aspects of recreational water management as well as define water quality criteria for various hazards. For faecal pollution, these include faecal indicator organism concentrations and an assessment of vulnerability to faecal contamination. Central to the approach set out in the WHO Guidelines are: (i) the concept of beach profiling to produce a ‘sanitary inspection category’ which implies a priori hazard assessment as a core management tool and (ii) the prediction of poor water quality to assist in real time risk assessment and public health protection. These management approaches reflect a harmonized approach towards the assessment and management of risk for water-related infectious disease being applied by WHO. Numerical microbiological criteria for intestinal enterococci are proposed in the new Guidelines. These were developed using a novel approach to disease burden assessment, which has been applied to both recreational waters and urban air quality. This paper explains the scientific rationale and mathematical basis of the new approach, which is not presented in the WHO Guidelines for recreational waters. en
dc.format.extent 9 en
dc.language.iso eng
dc.relation.ispartof Water Research en
dc.title Derivation of numerical values for the World Health Organization guidelines for recreational waters en
dc.type Text en
dc.type.publicationtype Article (Journal) en
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2003.11.032
dc.contributor.institution Institute of Geography & Earth Sciences en
dc.contributor.institution River Basin Dynamics and Hydrology en
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en


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