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dc.contributor.author Hunt, Chris
dc.contributor.author Grattan, John
dc.contributor.author Gilbertson, D.
dc.date.accessioned 2007-03-28T08:31:11Z
dc.date.available 2007-03-28T08:31:11Z
dc.date.issued 2007-01
dc.identifier.citation Hunt , C , Grattan , J & Gilbertson , D 2007 , ' The local and global dimensions of metalliferous pollution derived from a reconstruction of an eight thousand year record of copper smelting and mining at a desert-mountain frontier in southern Jordan ' Journal of Archaeological Science , vol 34 , no. 1 , pp. 83-110 . , 10.1016/j.jas.2006.04.004 en
dc.identifier.issn 0305-4403
dc.identifier.other PURE: 71916
dc.identifier.other dspace: 2160/303
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2160/303
dc.description Grattan, J.P., Gilbertson, D.D., Hunt, C.O. (2007). The local and global dimensions of metaliferrous air pollution derived from a reconstruction of an 8 thousand year record of copper smelting and mining at a desert-mountain frontier in southern Jordan. Journal of Archaeological Science 34, 83-110 en
dc.description.abstract This paper establishes an eight thousand year history of anthropogenic metal pollution at one of the oldest, most important and longest sustained sites of the extraction and smelting of copper ores in the Old World: the Faynan Orefield in Jordan, which is located between the hyper-arid southern desert and the front of the wetter Mountains of Edom. The modern land surface is shown, in significant part, to be a complex palimpsest of archaeological sites, metal pollution of various ages and ore processing deposits. Quantitative and qualitative observations of the storage and cycling of heavy metals through the local natural and domestic systems have produced a body of information on processes with which the past has been interpreted. Heavy metal concentrations in semi-continuous sedimentary bodies indicate that over the last 1500years, metals were removed by natural processes at a comparatively slow rate given the scale of the original anthropogenic metal burden: the proportions of lead with respect to copper have increased as the overall metal burden has been lowered. Distinctive anthropogenic metal-pollution signatures have been detected in ash- and charcoal-rich deposits that were discarded onto the banks of a perennial stream in the late Neolithic. At present, the nature of the human activities that might have produced these pollution signatures is unknown. Substantial metal pollution from industrial-scale smelting activity was present from the Early Bronze Age. The intensity of heavy metal pollution produced in Classical Times locally exceeded that recorded at major European copper smelting centres in the nineteenth century A.D. The pollution evidence indicates that intensive copper smelting at the immediate area took place until approximately the end of the Byzantine period; with the exception of one further minor episode of smelting radiocarbon dated to cal. BP 530-330. An observed partial, but perhaps significant, parallelism is also noted between this local record and the records of the metal burdens of the northern hemisphere determined at mire or ice-sheet sites at high-altitudes or high-latitudes. The paper discusses the extent to which this parallelism might be a geochemical indicator of the actual existence of ''economic systems'' of a geographical scope and scale to have both exercised substantial ''pull'' upon the resources of such isolated and difficult locations at the Wadi Faynan, and to have generated sufficient overall metal pollution to have materially altered the chemistry of the global atmosphere. The comparative absence of quantitative information upon the nature, spatial scale and impacts of human, industrial and natural processes affecting metal-pollution in other metal-rich arid lands provides a significant impediment to such approaches that seek to research ''locally and think globally''. en
dc.format.extent 28 en
dc.language.iso eng
dc.relation.ispartof Journal of Archaeological Science en
dc.title The local and global dimensions of metalliferous pollution derived from a reconstruction of an eight thousand year record of copper smelting and mining at a desert-mountain frontier in southern Jordan en
dc.type Text en
dc.type.publicationtype Article (Journal) en
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2006.04.004
dc.contributor.institution Registry en
dc.contributor.institution Institute of Geography & Earth Sciences en
dc.contributor.institution Quaternary Environmental Change Group en
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en


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