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dc.contributor.author A. L. en_US
dc.contributor.author Susan en_US
dc.contributor.author K. en_US
dc.contributor.author I. S. en_US
dc.contributor.author Ann Myfanwy en_US
dc.contributor.author K. J. en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2010-03-16T15:47:14Z
dc.date.available 2010-03-16T15:47:14Z
dc.date.issued 2009-07-20 en_US
dc.identifier http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2229-9-94 en_US
dc.identifier.citation Winters , A L , Heywood , S , Farrar , K , Donnison , I S , Thomas , A M & Webb , K J 2009 , ' Identification of an extensive gene cluster among a family of PPOs in Trifolium pratense L. (red clover) using a large insert BAC library ' BMC Plant Biology , vol 9 , 94 . , 10.1186/1471-2229-9-94 en_US
dc.identifier.other PURE: 144781 en_US
dc.identifier.other dspace: 2160/4443 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2160/4443
dc.description.abstract Background Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in plants is a trait with potential economic, agricultural and environmental impact. In relation to the food industry, PPO-induced browning causes unacceptable discolouration in fruit and vegetables: from an agriculture perspective, PPO can protect plants against pathogens and environmental stress, improve ruminant growth by increasing nitrogen absorption and decreasing nitrogen loss to the environment through the animal's urine. The high PPO legume, red clover, has a significant economic and environmental role in sustaining low-input organic and conventional farms. Molecular markers for a range of important agricultural traits are being developed for red clover and improved knowledge of PPO genes and their structure will facilitate molecular breeding. Results A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library comprising 26,016 BAC clones with an average 135 Kb insert size, was constructed from Trifolium pratense L. (red clover), a diploid legume with a haploid genome size of 440-637 Mb. Library coverage of 6-8 genome equivalents ensured good representation of genes: the library was screened for polyphenol oxidase (PPO) genes. Two single copy PPO genes, PPO4 and PPO5, were identified to add to a family of three, previously reported, paralogous genes (PPO1-PPO3). Multiple PPO1 copies were identified and characterised revealing a subfamily comprising three variants PPO1/2, PPO1/4 and PPO1/5. Six PPO genes clustered within the genome: four separate BAC clones could be assembled onto a predicted 190-510 Kb single BAC contig. Conclusion A PPO gene family in red clover resides as a cluster of at least 6 genes. Three of these genes have high homology, suggesting a more recent evolutionary event. This PPO cluster covers a longer region of the genome than clusters detected in rice or previously reported in tomato. Full-length coding sequences from PPO4, PPO5, PPO1/5 and PPO1/4 will facilitate functional studies and provide genetic markers for plant breeding. en_US
dc.relation.ispartof BMC Plant Biology en_US
dc.title Identification of an extensive gene cluster among a family of PPOs in Trifolium pratense L. (red clover) using a large insert BAC library en_US
dc.contributor.pbl Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences en_US


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