Faecal indicator organism concentrations and catchment export coefficients in the UK

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dc.contributor.author Kay, D.
dc.contributor.author Crowther, J.
dc.contributor.author Stapleton, C. M.
dc.contributor.author Wyer, M. D.
dc.contributor.author Fewtrell, L.
dc.contributor.author Anthony, S.
dc.contributor.author Bradford, M.
dc.contributor.author Edwards, A.
dc.contributor.author Francis, C. A.
dc.contributor.author Hopkins, M.
dc.contributor.author Kay, C.
dc.contributor.author McDonald, A. T.
dc.contributor.author Watkins, J.
dc.contributor.author Wilkinson, J.
dc.date.accessioned 2011-01-06T14:42:00Z
dc.date.available 2011-01-06T14:42:00Z
dc.date.issued 2008-05
dc.identifier.citation Kay , D , Crowther , J , Stapleton , C M , Wyer , M D , Fewtrell , L , Anthony , S , Bradford , M , Edwards , A , Francis , C A , Hopkins , M , Kay , C , McDonald , A T , Watkins , J & Wilkinson , J 2008 , ' Faecal indicator organism concentrations and catchment export coefficients in the UK ' Water Research , vol 42 , no. 10-11 , pp. 2649-2661 . en
dc.identifier.issn 0043-1354
dc.identifier.other PURE: 156675
dc.identifier.other dspace: 2160/6056
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2160/6056
dc.description Sponsorship: Research Councils (EPSRC Grant Reference M99774); European Union (Interreg IIa, IIIa and IIIb Programmes); Environment Agency for England and Wales; Scottish Environment Protection Agency; Scottish Government, United Kingdom Water Industry Research and individual water companies, including West of Scotland Water (now Scottish Water), Anglian Water, United Utilities, Welsh Water Dŵr Cymru and Yorkshire Water en
dc.description.abstract Characterisation of faecal indicator organism (FIO) concentrations and export coefficients for catchments with particular combinations of land use and under specific climatic regimes is critical in developing models to predict daily loads and apportion sources of the microbial parameters used to regulate water quality. Accordingly, this paper presents a synthesis of FIO concentration and export coefficient data for the summer bathing season, with some comparative winter data, for 205 river/stream sampling points widely distributed across mainland UK. In terms of both geometric mean (GM) FIO concentrations and export coefficients (expressed as cfu km−2 h−1), the results reveal (1) statistically significant elevations at high flow compared with base flow, with concentrations typically increasing by more than an order of magnitude and export coefficients by about two orders; (2) significantly higher values in summer than in winter under high-flow conditions; and (3) extremely wide variability between the catchments (e.g. four orders of magnitude range for GM faecal coliform concentrations), which closely reflects land use—with urban areas and improved pastures identified as key FIO sources. Generally, these two most polluting land uses are concentrated in lowland areas where runoff (m3 km−2 h−1) is low compared with upland areas, which in the UK are dominated by rough grazing and forestry. Consequently, contrasts in export coefficients between land use types are less than for FIO concentrations. The GMs reported for most land use categories are based on 13 sites and exhibit quite narrow confidence intervals. They may therefore be applied with some confidence to other catchments in the UK and similar geographical regions elsewhere. Examples are presented to illustrate how the results can be used to estimate daily summer base- and high-flow FIO loads for catchments with different land use types, and to assess the likely effectiveness of certain strategies for reducing FIO pollutant loadings in areas with extensive areas of lowland improved pasture. en
dc.format.extent 13 en
dc.language.iso eng
dc.relation.ispartof Water Research en
dc.title Faecal indicator organism concentrations and catchment export coefficients in the UK en
dc.type Text en
dc.type.publicationtype Article (Journal) en
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2008.01.017
dc.contributor.institution Institute of Geography & Earth Sciences en
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en


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