Farmyards, an overlooked source for highly contaminated runoff

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dc.contributor.author Edwards, Anthony C.
dc.contributor.author Kay, David
dc.contributor.author McDonald, Adrian T.
dc.contributor.author Francis, Carol
dc.contributor.author Watkins, John
dc.contributor.author Wilkinson, J. R.
dc.contributor.author Wyer, Mark D.
dc.date.accessioned 2011-01-06T14:45:59Z
dc.date.available 2011-01-06T14:45:59Z
dc.date.issued 2008-06-01
dc.identifier.citation Edwards , A C , Kay , D , McDonald , A T , Francis , C , Watkins , J , Wilkinson , J R & Wyer , M D 2008 , ' Farmyards, an overlooked source for highly contaminated runoff ' Journal of Environmental Management , vol 87 , no. 4 , pp. 551-559 . en
dc.identifier.issn 0301-4797
dc.identifier.other PURE: 156461
dc.identifier.other dspace: 2160/6064
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2160/6064
dc.description Edwards, A. C., Kay, D., McDonald, A. T., Francis, C., Watkins, J., Wilkinson, J. R., Wyer, M. D. (2008). Farmyards, an overlooked source for highly contaminated runoff. Environmental Management, 87(4): 551-559. Sponsorship: Scottish Executive Environmental and Rural Affairs Department. en
dc.description.abstract Summer sampling of storm runoff generated from areas of roofs and hardstanding situated on four dairy/beef farms has provided novel information regarding its microbiological and chemical quality. All farm hardstandings generated runoff that was contaminated with respect to those pollutants (faecal coliforms, FC, and faecal streptococci, FS, major nutrients, organic carbon) that are ubiquitously associated with faecal matter and urine. The separate analysis of roof runoff indicated that these can contribute significant concentrations of FS, phosphorus (P) and potentially toxic elements such as zinc (Zn), and suggests a level of ‘background’ contamination originating from wash-off of bird droppings and in the case of Zn galvanised surfaces. On average hardstanding runoff showed enhanced concentrations of >4 orders of magnitude for FC and 2–3 for major nutrients and carbon relative to roof runoff. Organic forms of nitrogen (N) and P contributed significantly (averaging >40%) to the total dissolved fraction in both roof and hardstanding runoff. Part of the substantial variability in composition of runoff samples could be attributed to differences between farms as well as the timing of sample collection during individual storms. Where situations allowed, a comparison of water upstream and downstream of the farmyard demonstrated they acted as a source of multiple contaminants not only during hydrologically active storm events but also during dry periods. Contamination pathways included a combination of both point (e.g., septic overflows) and non-point (e.g., seepage from livestock housing) sources. Farmyards situated within intensive livestock farming areas such as SW Scotland, would be expected to have significant local and accumulated downstream impacts on the aquatic environment. Localised impacts would be particularly important for headwaters and low order streams en
dc.format.extent 9 en
dc.language.iso eng
dc.relation.ispartof Journal of Environmental Management en
dc.subject Farmyards en
dc.subject Hardstanding runoff en
dc.subject Roof runoff en
dc.subject Livestock en
dc.subject Nitrogen en
dc.subject Phosphorus en
dc.subject Potassium en
dc.subject Zinc en
dc.subject Faecal indicator organisms en
dc.title Farmyards, an overlooked source for highly contaminated runoff en
dc.type Text en
dc.type.publicationtype Article (Journal) en
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.06.027
dc.contributor.institution Institute of Geography & Earth Sciences en
dc.contributor.institution River Basin Dynamics and Hydrology en
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en


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