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dc.contributor.author Anthony C. en_US
dc.contributor.author David en_US
dc.contributor.author Adrian T. en_US
dc.contributor.author Carol en_US
dc.contributor.author John en_US
dc.contributor.author J. R. en_US
dc.contributor.author Mark D. en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2011-01-06T14:45:59Z
dc.date.available 2011-01-06T14:45:59Z
dc.date.issued 2008-06-01 en_US
dc.identifier http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.06.027 en_US
dc.identifier.citation Edwards , A C , Kay , D , McDonald , A T , Francis , C , Watkins , J , Wilkinson , J R & Wyer , M D 2008 , ' Farmyards, an overlooked source for highly contaminated runoff ' Journal of Environmental Management , vol 87 , no. 4 , pp. 551-559 . , 10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.06.027 en_US
dc.identifier.other PURE: 156461 en_US
dc.identifier.other dspace: 2160/6064 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2160/6064
dc.description.abstract Summer sampling of storm runoff generated from areas of roofs and hardstanding situated on four dairy/beef farms has provided novel information regarding its microbiological and chemical quality. All farm hardstandings generated runoff that was contaminated with respect to those pollutants (faecal coliforms, FC, and faecal streptococci, FS, major nutrients, organic carbon) that are ubiquitously associated with faecal matter and urine. The separate analysis of roof runoff indicated that these can contribute significant concentrations of FS, phosphorus (P) and potentially toxic elements such as zinc (Zn), and suggests a level of ‘background’ contamination originating from wash-off of bird droppings and in the case of Zn galvanised surfaces. On average hardstanding runoff showed enhanced concentrations of >4 orders of magnitude for FC and 2–3 for major nutrients and carbon relative to roof runoff. Organic forms of nitrogen (N) and P contributed significantly (averaging >40%) to the total dissolved fraction in both roof and hardstanding runoff. Part of the substantial variability in composition of runoff samples could be attributed to differences between farms as well as the timing of sample collection during individual storms. Where situations allowed, a comparison of water upstream and downstream of the farmyard demonstrated they acted as a source of multiple contaminants not only during hydrologically active storm events but also during dry periods. Contamination pathways included a combination of both point (e.g., septic overflows) and non-point (e.g., seepage from livestock housing) sources. Farmyards situated within intensive livestock farming areas such as SW Scotland, would be expected to have significant local and accumulated downstream impacts on the aquatic environment. Localised impacts would be particularly important for headwaters and low order streams en_US
dc.format.extent 9 en_US
dc.relation.ispartof Journal of Environmental Management en_US
dc.subject Farmyards en_US
dc.subject Hardstanding runoff en_US
dc.subject Roof runoff en_US
dc.subject Livestock en_US
dc.subject Nitrogen en_US
dc.subject Phosphorus en_US
dc.subject Potassium en_US
dc.subject Zinc en_US
dc.subject Faecal indicator organisms en_US
dc.title Farmyards, an overlooked source for highly contaminated runoff en_US
dc.contributor.pbl Institute of Geography & Earth Sciences en_US
dc.contributor.pbl River Basin Dynamics and Hydrology en_US


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