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dc.contributor.author John en_US
dc.contributor.author J. en_US
dc.contributor.author Carl M. en_US
dc.contributor.author M. en_US
dc.contributor.author C. en_US
dc.contributor.author Mark D. en_US
dc.contributor.author David en_US
dc.contributor.author Adrian T. en_US
dc.contributor.author John en_US
dc.contributor.author Carol en_US
dc.contributor.author Lorna en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2011-01-10T09:05:21Z
dc.date.available 2011-01-10T09:05:21Z
dc.date.issued 2008-04-01 en_US
dc.identifier http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2007.10.009 en_US
dc.identifier.citation Crowther , J , Wilkinson , J , Stapleton , C M , Hopkins , M , Kay , C , Wyer , M D , Kay , D , McDonald , A T , Watkins , J , Francis , C & Fewtrell , L 2008 , ' Quantification and control of microbial pollution from agriculture: a new policy challenge? ' Environmental Science and Policy , vol 11 , no. 2 , pp. 171-184 . , 10.1016/j.envsci.2007.10.009 en_US
dc.identifier.other PURE: 156714 en_US
dc.identifier.other dspace: 2160/6071 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2160/6071
dc.description.abstract Faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are commonly used to quantify pollution of public health significance. Health protection, as indexed by FIO control, is a central aim of new ‘catchment-scale’ water quality management required in the USA by the Clean Water Act and in the European Union (EU) by the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Experience of the former, after a decade of implementation, suggests that the most significant reason for water quality ‘impairment’ is elevated FIO concentrations, mainly in recreational and shellfish harvesting waters. This provides an early warning of possible problems which the EU regulatory authorities are likely to face. To date, however, a surprising lack of EU attention has been given to prediction and control of catchment fluxes of this key parameter. This is likely to prove embarrassing if the experience of the US regulatory community is not acted upon with some urgency. There is a growing, though still partial, body of empirical science to form the ‘evidence-base’ for good regulatory practice. However, adoption of ‘best management practices’ (BMPs) to effect remediation of impacted waters will require close integration of water policy with policies on financial support for the farming community. This is likely to require enhanced communication and integration within the discrete policy communities addressing the agricultural sector through the Common Agricultural Policy and water regulation through the Water Framework Directive. en_US
dc.format.extent 14 en_US
dc.relation.ispartof Environmental Science and Policy en_US
dc.title Quantification and control of microbial pollution from agriculture: a new policy challenge? en_US
dc.contributor.pbl Institute of Geography & Earth Sciences en_US
dc.contributor.pbl River Basin Dynamics and Hydrology en_US


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