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dc.contributor.author A. Peter en_US
dc.contributor.author Annalaura en_US
dc.contributor.author Nigel en_US
dc.contributor.author Martin en_US
dc.contributor.author Maurizio en_US
dc.contributor.author Jens en_US
dc.contributor.author Christophe en_US
dc.contributor.author Andrew en_US
dc.contributor.author Rosina en_US
dc.contributor.author Christiane en_US
dc.contributor.author Ana-Maria en_US
dc.contributor.author David en_US
dc.contributor.author Iwona en_US
dc.contributor.author Juan en_US
dc.contributor.author Michele en_US
dc.contributor.author Maria S. J. en_US
dc.contributor.author George en_US
dc.contributor.author Saskia en_US
dc.contributor.author Jane en_US
dc.contributor.author Regine en_US
dc.contributor.author Mark David en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2011-05-20T10:22:49Z
dc.date.available 2011-05-20T10:22:49Z
dc.date.issued 2011-01 en_US
dc.identifier http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2010.10.015 en_US
dc.identifier.citation Wyn-Jones , A P , Carducci , A , Cook , N , D'Agostino , M , Divizia , M , Fleischer , J , Gantzer , C , Gawler , A , Girones , R , Höller , C , de Roda Husman , A-M , Kay , D , Kozyra , I , López-Pila , J , Muscillo , M , Nascimento , M S J , Papageorgiou , G , Rutjes , S , Sellwood , J , Szewzyk , R & Wyer , M D 2011 , ' Surveillance of adenoviruses and noroviruses in European recreational waters ' Water Research , vol 45 , no. 3 , pp. 1025-1038 . , 10.1016/j.watres.2010.10.015 en_US
dc.identifier.other PURE: 161196 en_US
dc.identifier.other dspace: 2160/6782 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2160/6782
dc.description.abstract Exposure to human pathogenic viruses in recreational waters has been shown to cause disease outbreaks. In the context of Article 14 of the revised European Bathing Waters Directive 2006/7/EC (rBWD, CEU, 2006) a Europe-wide surveillance study was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of two human enteric viruses in recreational waters. Adenoviruses were selected based on their near-universal shedding and environmental survival, and noroviruses (NoV) selected as being the most prevalent gastroenteritis agent worldwide. Concentration of marine and freshwater samples was done by adsorption/elution followed by molecular detection by (RT)-PCR. Out of 1410 samples, 553 (39.2%) were positive for one or more of the target viruses. Adenoviruses, detected in 36.4% of samples, were more prevalent than noroviruses (9.4%), with 3.5% GI and 6.2% GII, some samples being positive for both GI and GII. Of 513 human adenovirus-positive samples, 63 (12.3%) were also norovirus-positive, whereas 69 (7.7%) norovirus-positive samples were adenovirus-negative. More freshwater samples than marine water samples were virus-positive. Out of a small selection of samples tested for adenovirus infectivity, approximately one-quarter were positive. Sixty percent of 132 nested-PCR adenovirus-positive samples analysed by quantitative PCR gave a mean value of over 3000 genome copies per L of water. The simultaneous detection of infectious adenovirus and of adenovirus and NoV by (RT)PCR suggests that the presence of infectious viruses in recreational waters may constitute a public health risk upon exposure. These studies support the case for considering adenoviruses as an indicator of bathing water quality. en_US
dc.format.extent 14 en_US
dc.relation.ispartof Water Research en_US
dc.subject adenoviruses en_US
dc.subject noroviruses en_US
dc.subject bathing water en_US
dc.subject river water en_US
dc.subject sea water en_US
dc.subject recreational water en_US
dc.subject water quality en_US
dc.title Surveillance of adenoviruses and noroviruses in European recreational waters en_US
dc.contributor.pbl River Basin Dynamics and Hydrology en_US
dc.contributor.pbl Institute of Geography & Earth Sciences en_US


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