Surveillance of adenoviruses and noroviruses in European recreational waters

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dc.contributor.author Wyn-Jones, A. Peter
dc.contributor.author Carducci, Annalaura
dc.contributor.author Cook, Nigel
dc.contributor.author D'Agostino, Martin
dc.contributor.author Divizia, Maurizio
dc.contributor.author Fleischer, Jens
dc.contributor.author Gantzer, Christophe
dc.contributor.author Gawler, Andrew
dc.contributor.author Girones, Rosina
dc.contributor.author Höller, Christiane
dc.contributor.author de Roda Husman, Ana-Maria
dc.contributor.author Kay, David
dc.contributor.author Kozyra, Iwona
dc.contributor.author López-Pila, Juan
dc.contributor.author Muscillo, Michele
dc.contributor.author Nascimento, Maria S. J.
dc.contributor.author Papageorgiou, George
dc.contributor.author Rutjes, Saskia
dc.contributor.author Sellwood, Jane
dc.contributor.author Szewzyk, Regine
dc.contributor.author Wyer, Mark David
dc.date.accessioned 2011-05-20T10:22:49Z
dc.date.available 2011-05-20T10:22:49Z
dc.date.issued 2011-01
dc.identifier.citation Wyn-Jones , A P , Carducci , A , Cook , N , D'Agostino , M , Divizia , M , Fleischer , J , Gantzer , C , Gawler , A , Girones , R , Höller , C , de Roda Husman , A-M , Kay , D , Kozyra , I , López-Pila , J , Muscillo , M , Nascimento , M S J , Papageorgiou , G , Rutjes , S , Sellwood , J , Szewzyk , R & Wyer , M D 2011 , ' Surveillance of adenoviruses and noroviruses in European recreational waters ' Water Research , vol 45 , no. 3 , pp. 1025-1038 . , 10.1016/j.watres.2010.10.015 en
dc.identifier.issn 0043-1354
dc.identifier.other PURE: 161196
dc.identifier.other dspace: 2160/6782
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2160/6782
dc.description Wyn-Jones, A. P., Carducci, A., Cook, N., D'Agostino, M., Divizia, M., Fleischer, J., Gantzer, C., Gawler, A., Girones, R., Höller, C., de Roda Husman, A. M. et al (2011). Surveillance of adenoviruses and noroviruses in European recreational waters. Water Research, 45(3), 1025-1038. Sponsorship: EU contract number 513648 VIROBATHE, as part of the Sixth Framework Programme en
dc.description.abstract Exposure to human pathogenic viruses in recreational waters has been shown to cause disease outbreaks. In the context of Article 14 of the revised European Bathing Waters Directive 2006/7/EC (rBWD, CEU, 2006) a Europe-wide surveillance study was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of two human enteric viruses in recreational waters. Adenoviruses were selected based on their near-universal shedding and environmental survival, and noroviruses (NoV) selected as being the most prevalent gastroenteritis agent worldwide. Concentration of marine and freshwater samples was done by adsorption/elution followed by molecular detection by (RT)-PCR. Out of 1410 samples, 553 (39.2%) were positive for one or more of the target viruses. Adenoviruses, detected in 36.4% of samples, were more prevalent than noroviruses (9.4%), with 3.5% GI and 6.2% GII, some samples being positive for both GI and GII. Of 513 human adenovirus-positive samples, 63 (12.3%) were also norovirus-positive, whereas 69 (7.7%) norovirus-positive samples were adenovirus-negative. More freshwater samples than marine water samples were virus-positive. Out of a small selection of samples tested for adenovirus infectivity, approximately one-quarter were positive. Sixty percent of 132 nested-PCR adenovirus-positive samples analysed by quantitative PCR gave a mean value of over 3000 genome copies per L of water. The simultaneous detection of infectious adenovirus and of adenovirus and NoV by (RT)PCR suggests that the presence of infectious viruses in recreational waters may constitute a public health risk upon exposure. These studies support the case for considering adenoviruses as an indicator of bathing water quality. en
dc.format.extent 14 en
dc.language.iso eng
dc.relation.ispartof Water Research en
dc.subject adenoviruses en
dc.subject noroviruses en
dc.subject bathing water en
dc.subject river water en
dc.subject sea water en
dc.subject recreational water en
dc.subject water quality en
dc.title Surveillance of adenoviruses and noroviruses in European recreational waters en
dc.type Text en
dc.type.publicationtype Article (Journal) en
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2010.10.015
dc.contributor.institution River Basin Dynamics and Hydrology en
dc.contributor.institution Institute of Geography & Earth Sciences en
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en


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