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dc.contributor.author Hartemann, Philippe
dc.contributor.author Hunter, Paul R.
dc.contributor.author de Sylor, Marianna Anderle
dc.contributor.author Risebro, Helen L.
dc.contributor.author Kay, David
dc.contributor.author Nichols, Gordon L.
dc.date.accessioned 2011-06-15T11:36:33Z
dc.date.available 2011-06-15T11:36:33Z
dc.date.issued 2011-06-15
dc.identifier.citation Hartemann , P , Hunter , P R , de Sylor , M A , Risebro , H L , Kay , D & Nichols , G L 2011 , ' Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment of Cryptosporidiosis and Giardiasis from Very Small Private Water Supplies ' Risk Analysis , vol 31 , no. 2 , pp. 228-236 . , 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2010.01499.x en
dc.identifier.issn 1539-6924
dc.identifier.other PURE: 167614
dc.identifier.other dspace: 2160/7073
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2160/7073
dc.description Hunter, P. R., de Sylor, M. A., Risebro, H. L., Nichols, G. L., Kay, D., Harteman, P. (2011). Small Private Water Supplies. Risk Analysis, 31, (2), 228-236. en
dc.description.abstract This article reports a quantitative microbial risk assessment of the risk of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in very small private water supplies. Both pathogens have been implicated in causing outbreaks of waterborne disease associated with such supplies, though the risk of endemic disease is not known. For exposure assessments, we used existing data to derive regression equations describing the relationships between the concentration of these pathogens and Escherichia colt in private water supplies. Pathogen concentrations were then estimated using national surveillance data of E. coli in private water supplies in England and France. The estimated risk of infection was very high with the median annual risk being of the order of 25-28% for Cryptosporidium and 0.4% to 0.7% for Giardia, though, in the poorer quality supplies the risk could be much higher. These risks are substantially greater than for public water supplies and well above the risk considered tolerable. The observation that observed infection rates are generally much lower may indicate increased immunity in people regularly consuming water from private supplies. However, this increased immunity is presumed to derive from increased disease risk in young children, the group most at risk from severe disease. en
dc.format.extent 9 en
dc.language.iso eng
dc.relation.ispartof Risk Analysis en
dc.title Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment of Cryptosporidiosis and Giardiasis from Very Small Private Water Supplies en
dc.type Text en
dc.type.publicationtype Article (Journal) en
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2010.01499.x
dc.contributor.institution Institute of Geography & Earth Sciences en
dc.contributor.institution River Basin Dynamics and Hydrology en
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en


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