Emergence of modern human behavior: Middle Stone Age engravings from South Africa

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dc.contributor.author Henshilwood, CS
dc.contributor.author d'Errico, F
dc.contributor.author Yates, R
dc.contributor.author Jacobs, Z
dc.contributor.author Tribolo, C
dc.contributor.author Duller, GAT
dc.contributor.author Mercier, N
dc.contributor.author Sealy, JC
dc.contributor.author Valladas, H
dc.contributor.author Watts, C. W.
dc.contributor.author Wintle, AG
dc.date.accessioned 2011-09-13T11:11:02Z
dc.date.available 2011-09-13T11:11:02Z
dc.date.issued 2002-02-15
dc.identifier.citation Henshilwood , C S , d'Errico , F , Yates , R , Jacobs , Z , Tribolo , C , Duller , G A T , Mercier , N , Sealy , J C , Valladas , H , Watts , C W & Wintle , A G 2002 , ' Emergence of modern human behavior: Middle Stone Age engravings from South Africa ' Science , vol 295 , no. 5558 , pp. 1278-1280 . , 10.1126/science.1067575 en
dc.identifier.issn 1095-9203
dc.identifier.other PURE: 170756
dc.identifier.other dspace: 2160/7575
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2160/7575
dc.description Henshilwood, C. S., d'Errico, F., Yates, R., Jacobs, Z., Tribolo, C., Duller, G. A. T., Mercier, N., Sealy, J. C., Valladas, H., Watts, I., Wintle, A. G. (2002). Emergence of modern human behavior: Middle Stone Age engravings from South Africa. Science, 295 (558), 1278-1280. en
dc.description.abstract In the Eurasian Upper Paleotithic after about 35,000 years ago, abstract or depictional images provide evidence for cognitive abilities considered integral to modern human behavior. Here we report on two abstract representations engraved on pieces of red ochre recovered from the Middle Stone Age layers at Blombos Cave in South Africa. A mean date of 77,000 years was obtained for the layers containing the engraved ochres by thermoluminescence dating of burnt lithics, and the stratigraphic integrity was confirmed by an optically stimulated luminescence age of 70,000 years on an overlying dune. These engravings support the emergence of modern human behavior in Africa at least 35,000 years before the start of the Upper Paleolithic. en
dc.format.extent 3 en
dc.language.iso eng
dc.relation.ispartof Science en
dc.subject LUMINESCENCE en
dc.title Emergence of modern human behavior: Middle Stone Age engravings from South Africa en
dc.type Text en
dc.type.publicationtype Article (Journal) en
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1067575
dc.contributor.institution Institute of Geography & Earth Sciences en
dc.contributor.institution Quaternary Environmental Change Group en
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en


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