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dc.contributor.advisor Booth, Ken
dc.contributor.advisor Hobden, Steve Kroslak, Daniela 2009-10-23T14:33:05Z 2009-10-23T14:33:05Z 2002
dc.identifier.citation Kroslak, Daniela, (2002) 'The responsibility of external bystanders in cases of genocide: the French in Rwanda, 1990-1994', Department of International Politics, Aberystwyth University en
dc.description.abstract The 1994 Rwandan genocide raised the issue of the role and responsibility of external actors in the prevention and suppression of genocide. The central aim of the thesis is to analyse whether and how so-called 'external bystanders' can be held responsible for their inaction in cases of genocide. Part I of the thesis problematises the definition of the term 'bystander' and argues that to ascribe responsibility to bystanders it is important to distinguish between degrees of responsibility. Three criteria - knowledge, involvement, capability - comprise the theoretical framework according to which external bystanders can be held responsible. External bystanders in the form of state governments constitute the central actors in the analysis. Responsibility is determined according to the norms established under the Genocide Convention and a universalist ethic. Part II looks at the case of France and the Rwandan genocide of 1994. It explores the historical and contextual background of the Rwandan genocide and French involvement in Africa, and then elaborates three key themes: the extent of French government's information about the preparation of the genocide and its awareness of the scale of the potential disaster; the degree of involvement by the French government during and prior to the genocide; and the level of French diplomatic and military capability to halt or suppress both the preparations for genocide and the genocide itself. In combination, these three criteria demonstrate the French government's high degree of responsibility in preventing and suppressing the 1994 Rwandan genocide. The main conclusion is that external bystanders should and can be held accountable for their actions and inaction in relation to the prevention and suppression of genocide. The theoretical framework and empirical evidence show that as an external bystander, the French government, had a high degree of responsibility in relation to the genocide. In demonstrating this, the thesis provides new knowledge on French action in Rwanda and a comprehensive and critical analysis of French policy, while the theoretical framework contributes to the evolving literature on bystanders. en
dc.description.sponsorship ESRC en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Aberystwyth University en
dc.title The responsibility of external bystanders in cases of genocide: the French in Rwanda, 1990-1994 en
dc.type Text en
dc.type.publicationtype doctoral thesis en

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